The Public Procurement Law, promulgated in 2002 within the framework of the structural reform agreed with the International Monetary Fund ( IMF ), was immediately reformed by the Erdoğan government, in 2003, to introduce numerous exceptions. These Whatsapp Mobile Number List changes continue to this day to give the state party a free hand in its very clientelistic management of public contracts. As can be seen, crony or crony capitalism is an almost universal dimension of authoritarian populism, as well as the corruption at the highest level that accompanies it.
Erdogan is also a type of populism. It divides society between "we, the people", morally pure and unified, and "them, the corrupt and contemptuous elites", a group "alien to their own culture and nation". Erdoğan always positions himself as the Whatsapp Mobile Number List embodiment of the national will and as the only person in a position to discern the common good. Questioning the veracity or relevance of his statements is enough to unleash the chief's fury and mobilize the prosecutors against the "enemies of the nation."
Elective authoritarianism, such as that of Turkey, inevitably maintains a strong populist dimension while constantly changing: thus, the dichotomous populist Whatsapp Mobile Number List discourse of the akp and Erdoğan remains in power, but experiences a certain slippage. While continuing to capitalize on the secular/religious cleavage, as Élise Massicard points out, the akp , in power for a long time, insists less on its anti-establishment dimension.